Papers Admintrasi Curriculum (Definition, Concepts, Event)


Chapter I
PRELIMINARY
A. Background
The words of education, guidance, teaching, learning, learning is often referred to as a technical term whose activities were melting in the educational activity. Education as an activity, means that conscious efforts are designed to help a person or group of people in developing iImu knowledge, outlook on life, attitude to life, and life skills both social and individual user. [1] The education system requires a management system that is organized, planned and organized, because education is not a job that can be done arbitrarily, or disheveled, because faced are living creatures (humans). [2] In the process, the impact on the quality of education obtained, where the quality was very difficult to measure, as proposed by Sagala (2000) that the issue of quality is very complicated and complex, not only the quality of a very relative concept but related factors are so complex and not simple. In the educational process reciprocal relationship between educators and students continuing in the direction of objectives to be realized together that educational goals or objectives of teaching and learning process with quality results.
Therefore, to achieve this is certainly very necessary to have management that govern them. The complexities involved in the educational process is not simple because it is associated with learning, curriculum, professional education personnel, facilities, budget and so on. With the administration in education then all the aforementioned components can be set up and managed as well as possible. In this case a headmaster, which in essence is a top leader has an obligation to run the administration in institutions / schools they lead.
One of the components that really needs attention is the curriculum. Because the curriculum is indeed a very important tool for the success of education. Without timely and appropriate curriculum will be difficult to achieve the goals and objectives of education in want. According Daryanto, the type and level of any school, the main task is to ensure their principals a good teaching program for students. This is the responsibility of the principal most challenges, while the staff gets share of responsibility in helping the business implementation and development of effective teaching program. [3]
In the MPR decree No. II / MPR / 1988 re Outline of State Policy states that "the National Education Based on Pancasila, Aims To Improve Human Quality Indonesia, the man who is faithful and devoted to God Almighty, noble character, hard working, resilient, responsible, independent, intelligent and skilled, as well as physically and mentally healthy. National education should be able to grow and deepen their love for the homeland, strengthen the national spirit and a sense of social solidarity. Correspondingly, developed teaching and learning climate can foster a sense of trust in yourself and the attitudes and behavior of the innovative and creative.
To realize the goal of national education has made various efforts, including:
»Strengthen the implementation of the applicable kurikkulum
»Increase the number of facilities and infrastructure to further leveling of educational services.
»Increase the type and number of teachers, both quantitatively and qualitatively, as a continuation of efforts to improve and equalize the quality of education and training.
Therefore, a high school principal must know the policies and administrative steps that are applicable.


B. Problem Formulation
Based on the above, it can be a few problems, namely:
1. How does the notion and concept of administration of the curriculum?
2. What-what are the main activities in the operations of the curriculum?
3. What should be in priority in the curriculum?

C. Purpose
The purpose and benefits that we can take in this paper are:
1. In order for students to understand how the organization of education according to the system, managing an orderly, planned and organized.
2. In order for students to understand that the curriculum is a very important tool for the success of education. Without timely and appropriate curriculum will be difficult to achieve the goals and objectives of education in want.
3. In order for students to understand and know what factors are related to the curriculum.


D. Systematics Discussion
This thesis consists of three parts, and each part is systematically arranged as follows:
In the first introductory chapter, the chapter is loaded on the background of the problem, formulation of the problem, the purpose of writing and systematic discussion. Chapter II of discussion, in this chapter contains administrative understanding Curriculum, Curriculum Administration Fundamentals, Operations Principal Activity Curriculum. Aspects of the curriculum. Chapter III of the cover, contains conclusions and suggestions.

BAB II
DISCUSSION


A. Definition and Concepts Administration Curriculum
Before we discuss the overall understanding of the curriculum administration we will briefly discuss the notion of administration and curriculum when standing alone.
Ø Administration 
Etymologically administration comes from the Latin "ad" and "ministro". Ad has a meaning of "to" and ministro means "to serve". Freely can be interpreted that the administration is a service or devotion to a particular subject. Indeed, the first days of the administration imposed on the work related to the devotion or service to the king or ministers in the task of managing government. [4] Another understanding that simply was also stated by Pure Joseph that the administration is directing. [5]The notion widely administration by Saiful Sagala is: "The series of activities with a group of people to systematically implement our mission of a business or organization that can be accomplished with a specific goal has been set. [6]
So the administration is a partnership to serve each other and directing regularly or systematically in an organization to achieve the desired goals together.




Ø Curriculum
The term curriculum was initially not used in education, which is used as a term in the world of sports. In the book Principles of Curriculum, S. Nasution said that the curriculum Webster said raised for the first time in 1856. This means that at that time was:
· A race course; a place for running; a chariot. It means "a distance that must be taken by runners or train in the race from start to finish".
The curriculum also means "chariot" sort of old rail spur, which is a tool that membewa person from start to finish. In addition, the use of the curriculum which was originally in the field of sports, then used in the field of education, which in the dictionary webster called "applied Particulary to the course of study in a university" then Nasution added that in 1955 in Webster curriculum given meaning "number subjects at school or college courses, which must be taken to achieve a diploma or degree. Also means that the overall lesson is presented by an educational institution. [7]
With reference to the classic definition above, which suggests that the curriculum is confined to the subjects of course, means that there are some activities and experience of the students who do not fit the restrictions of this curriculum. The activities are called extracurricular (extra curiculer activities) are outside the curriculum, so experiences at school are not included in it. Experiences such as playing in the school yard, the street, break and others like are not included curriculum, is not considered a learning experience.
However, this adult education leaders highlight the fact that learning in every child is a process that lasts for 24 hours each day. They argue experiences in the arts and sports clubs in schools in the excursion and others, all of which are situations that are rich in educational learning. Because the curriculum covers all the experiences that had been given the school to foster the development of children by creating learning situations. [8]




Ø Administration Curriculum
Once we know in a glance understanding of each of the administration and curriculum, let us point to the discussion on the overall understanding of the curriculum administration. Administration curriculum is the whole process of activities planned and deliberately cultivated and earnest and continuous development of the teaching and learning situation effectively and efficiently to help achieve educational goals that have been set. [9]
As was mentioned earlier that at any school level, the main task is to ensure their principals a good teaching program for students. Because basically the management / education management to focus all his efforts is located in Practice Learning to teach (PBM). It is apparent that essentially all efforts and activities implemented within a school / educational institution consistently been directed towards the success of the PBM.
In addition to the above, according to Joseph Pure Nana Syaodih quoting the opinion, that in relation to the curriculum, then there are three concepts related to the curriculum:
Ø The curriculum is the main core which becomes the substance of the activities in the school. Curricula planning learning activities and objectives to be achieved.
Ø The curriculum is seen as a system that includes the school system, the education system and even the public system. In this case, covered governance, curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation and curriculum improvement.
Ø curriculum as a study reviewed by experts in the field of curriculum. In this regard, experts curriculum seeks to develop and innovation in the field of curriculum.




Thus, the activities in the curriculum administration is nothing but a variety of activities aimed at implementing and developing the curriculum so that the curriculum can be used as an instrument in achieving the goals and objectives of education. By applying the principles of administration, curriculum is then developed, so that in practice the curriculum can be expected to achieve education goals. At least, the administration of the curriculum calls for the formulation of the curriculum really departed from the need for an instrument that is planned, so that the implementation can run well too.




B. Basics Curriculum Administration
Curriculum is a teaching program that must be achieved by the pupils. The curriculum contains a field of study as well as the material to be studied, the activities should be carried out, teachers' teaching methods, and evaluation techniques used in the classroom. In practice, it's flexible curriculum. Curriculum content, materials, methods of teaching and evaluation techniques used by a different teacher with other teachers even though the same curriculum.
Administration curriculum to be implemented by the teacher in the classroom should follow a curriculum that applies, because the programs listed in it have been planned and selected by experts in their respective fields. Teachers supplement the curriculum with their own ideas and expertise. All teachers have a program, expertise, and experience that can diguakan to enrich the curriculum implementation, especially regarding local content.
A teacher needs to set objectives and activities that will be activities to be performed to set the goal of a teacher must plan individualized teaching that direct instruction is given to teach facts, understanding and skills. So that learning objectives can be achieved by either the teacher should implement teaching techniques with:
· Focusing on students
· Saving time
· Adjust the speed of pupil
· Ensuring that the transition period should be from one field of study to the next subject areas
· Ask students to summarize what has been learned




C. Principal Activity Operations Curriculum
As mentioned before that a school principal has the responsibility to determine the curriculum that will be implemented in the school. Therefore, principals should know the things concerning the management of the curriculum which will determine whether or not achieved the expected learning goals. According to Imron Fauzi implementation and curriculum development includes three things, namely:
· Providing guidance and realize what is included in the school curriculum in question in order to achieve the basics and purpose of education and teaching.
· Develop and implement curriculum organization and its materials, sources and methods of implementation, tailored to the educational reform and the teaching and mesyarakat and environmental needs of the school.
· The curriculum is not something that should follow and be followed simply by absolute without changes and deviations in the slightest. The curriculum is a guideline for teachers in performing their duties. [10]




In line with Fauzi, Ary Gunawan operationally suggested that the administration / management curriculum includes three main activities, namely:
· Activities related to the duties of teachers
· Activities related to learners
· Activities related to the entire academic community or people in schools / educational institutions. [11]




1. Activities related to teacher
a. Distribution of teaching hours.
As a general civil servants shall serve:
»Monday through Thursday
Starting at 07.00 to 14.00 = 4 x 7 hours = 28 hours
»Friday
start 07.00 to 11.00 = 1 x 4 hours = 4 hours
»Saturday
Starting at 07.00 until 12.30 = 1 x 5.5 hours = 5.5 hours
Total = 37.5 hours
The obligation for a teacher to teach a total of 24 hours of lessons / week, with the proviso that each one hour lesson lasts 45 minutes. Then:
24 x 0.75 hours = 18 hours




b. The task in following the timetable
There are three types namely the timetable for teachers; curricular schedules, curricular and extracurricular.
c. The task of the teacher in the PBM activities
This task is a series of activities teaching / instructional to achieve optimal learning outcomes, namely:
o Make preparation / planning for learning
o Implement teaching
o Evaluate the results of teaching




2. Activities related to learners
kegiatn activities of learners for the successful PBM listed in the schedule of learning activities that have been prepared by the school along with the schedule for the test / quiz / test, and the schedule of learning activities organized by the students in their study a success strategy. A student or students who study unusual actively and creatively arrange the schedule for times of learning, leisure / relaxed, social tasks, reading the paper, and so on.




3. Activities that relate to the entire academic community
This activity is synchronizing all curricular school activities, extra-curricular, academic / non-academic, weekdays, holidays, trips, days of national religion and so on.




Thus the three main points relating to the operations of the curriculum that should be considered by a school principal. A school principal responsible for assigning its staff in the areas of curriculum to oversee things mentioned above in order to achieve educational goals and success. Besides the three main activities mentioned above, there are still needs in ketengahkan PBM support activities to be discussed, namely guidance and counseling or guidance and counseling, school health (UKS), and a library. In an effort to increase the success of the PBM, PBM then several obstacles need to be overcome, namely the completeness factor of reading material.
Ø Health factors nonphysical / psychological
A learner can be less successful in the PBM when his soul impaired / distortion, such as a broken heart, troubled, disturbed household, impaired social / economic and other disorders that can affect the psyche. In such conditions the above cases the student or students should immediately go to the BP officer or BK school or college to get a good problem solving, through diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and follow-up as necessary.




Ø physical health factors
A learner can not be successful or interrupted PBM his school when he suddenly headache, abdominal pain, hurt (mild), fever and others. Then he can immediately asked to treat the pain in order to return following the PBM well. Thus UKS services in schools is as support PBM, siswapun not have to miss a lesson too much.




Ø Factors completeness reading material
A learner can not be successful or interrupted PMB because of its complete lack reading materials, then he can immediately use the services of the school library, so that he is free from interference PBM. If the terms of its functions, the library not only as a place to store books and to support PBM activities. Then the library is more fit in the curriculum along with BP and the administration is in place.








D. Main Aspects of Curriculum
In the big picture there are several different responses, namely:
»Since the school was founded by and among the people, to meet their needs, the teaching program must be concerned with the circumstances, background and needs of society.
»Because the education effort is to educate people, the curriculum should be prepared based on the circumstances, the nature and needs of the individual. [12]




As we saw above, the first assumption the public interest or socially oriented, while the second assumption concerned individual or psychologically oriented. Perhaps no one is willing to defend one opinion in its extreme form. In fact any teaching programs based on the interests of the community, to a certain extent into account the needs of individuals as well, and the opposite of any psychological-oriented curriculum with regard to the interests of society itself anyway.
The third establishment apart from the two above assume there is no disagreement in principle between the two. We do not have to hold on one of them, because it was totally unrealistic. Individuals can only manifest itself as an individual if he is in a community where he lives. Therefore the curriculum should be oriented to the individual in society.
This latter opinion seems to be indeed the most appropriate or consistent with the educational philosophy and goals of national education as set out in the preamble of the 1945 Constitution, "Life Feeding the Nation".
Another aspect of the problem is the issue: Does the curriculum should be determined by the needs and interests of adults (preparation for adulthood) or must be determined by the needs and interests of today's students. The parties retain the curriculum must be composed solely of subjects based on the needs and interests of the community, usually of the opinion that the task of the function of education is to the adult life. Therefore the curriculum should contain a lot of useful lessons for children in the future. Opinions that oppose pendidirian above put forward the theory that the child should be considered as a child with rights and not as adults in miniature. Therefore the curriculum should pay attention to issues concerning children alone.
From both the above opinion, a third opinion emerged that suggests the establishment that basically do not need no contradiction between the two establishments above, because in the curriculum quite noticed the needs and interests of both parties, both children and adults. The curriculum must contain learning experiences which also involves a direct interest in the lives of children and prepare them for life in adulthood later. Also argued that: "prepare children for adult life" implies a static society in which the needs and interests of adults in the future can be predicted in children present.
The latter in providing solutions to problems faced by children today, and concerning the interests of children in the future, is to improve the use of intelligence in a flexible, preparing children to adjust to changes in the world today pesatdari diversity. This latter view seems to provide a healthy foundation to develop a flexible but stable framework for curriculum planning.
CHAPTER III
COVER




A. Conclusions
Curriculum is a teaching program to be achieved by students who have been prepared in accordance with prevailing standards anywhere in Indonesia. When implemented by teachers, there were various pariasi influenced by differences in skills and philosophy teacher. Based on the above, it can pull a few conclusions:
1. Administration of the curriculum is the whole process of activities planned and deliberately cultivated and earnest and continuous development of the teaching and learning situation effectively and efficiently to help achieve educational goals that have been set.
2. Operationally administration / management curriculum includes three main activities, namely:
· Activities related to the duties of teachers
· Activities related to learners
· Activities related to the entire academic community or people in schools / educational institutions.
· In fact any teaching programs based on the interests of the community, to a certain extent into account the needs of individuals as well, and the opposite of any psychological-oriented curriculum with regard to the interests of society itself anyway.
Also argued that the curriculum should contain learning experiences which also involves a direct interest in the lives of children and prepare them for life in adulthood later. curriculum outlines how teachers pursuit mngorganisasi and implement programs in the classroom. There are several opinions in this case, namely:
· The curriculum should be devised and implemented by teachers, including all measures implementation angkah
· The curriculum must emphasize the structure of the various fields of study.
· The curriculum should memeberi greater freedom to students. Students must be able to choose what they want to learn and can mngatur learning time.
· Students must memeilih themselves what they want to learn and the teacher as a facilitator bertidak.
· The curriculum should be arranged in sequence and presented in a way that students can master everything.
· Planning curriculum should memeperhatikan:
- Goals and objectives
- The ability of pupils
- Method of teaching
- majemen field of study
- Management of material
- Evaluation and recording of learning outcomes
· The curriculum can be organized as:
- Teaching units
- Individual Teaching
· The teaching should provide:
- Goals
- Activities to be carried out
- material or teaching materials will be provided
- Expansion of the follow-up atawu
- Evaluas




B. Suggestions
From this brief paper we can hopefully benefit us all our generally private. The good comes from God, and that is bad comes from us. And we are conscious that our paper is far from perfect, there are still a lot of mistakes on all sides, so we harafkan his suggestions and constructive criticism, for further improvement papers.


BIBLIOGRAPHY



1. Syaiful Sagala, Contemporary Educational Administration, Bandung: Alfabeta, 2000.
2. Drs.H.Zainy Chalish Hamdy, M.Ed., Educational Administration and Supervision Dkk Pendidikan.Penerbit Press IAIN Medan.
3. HM Daryanto, Administration Curriculum, Jakarta: Rineka Copyright 2001.
4. Ary H. Gunawan, School Administration "Micro Educational Administration", Jakarta: Rineka Copyright, 1996.
5. S. Nasution, Principles of curriculum, (Jakarta: Earth Literacy, 2006), Page 1-2.



[1] Saiful Sagala, Contemporary Educational Administration, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2000). thing 1
[2] Drs.H.Zainy Chalish Hamdy, M. Ed, Dkk Educational Administration and Supervision of Education. Press Publisher IAIN Medan. thing 1
[3] HM Daryanto, Administration Curriculum, (Jakarta: Rineka Copyright, 2001). pg 36
[4] HM Daryanto, Administration Curriculum, (Jakarta: Rineka Copyright, 2001). thing 1
[5] http://www.muniryusuf.com/administrasi-kurikulum.html.
[6] Saiful Sagala, op.cit., Pp 26
[7] S. Nasution, Principles of curriculum, (Jakarta: Earth Literacy, 2006), Page 1-2.
[8] HM Daryanto, op.cit.,. It 38.
[9] Ary H. Gunawan, School Administration "Micro Educational Administration", (Jakarta: Rineka Copyright, 1996) .h. 80.
[10] http://imronfauzi.wordpress.com/2008/06/15/dasar-dasar-administrasi-pendidikan-2.
[11] Ary H. Gunawan, op.cit .. Page: 80
[12] HM Daryanto. It 41-43.


source: rob



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